Preventing congestion in crowd dynamics caused by reversing flow
In this paper we devise a microscopic (agent-based) mathematical model for reproducing crowd behavior in a specific scenario: a number of pedestrians, consisting of numerous social groups, flow along a corridor until a gate located at the end of the corridor closes. People are not informed about the closure of the gate and perceive the blockage observing dynamically the local crowd conditions. Once people become aware of the new conditions, they stop and then decide either to stay, waiting for reopening, or to go back and leave the corridor forever. People going back hit against newly incoming people creating a dangerous counter-flow. We run several numerical simulations varying parameters which control the crowd behavior, in order to understand the factors which have the greatest impact on the system dynamics. We also study the optimal way to inform people about the blockage in order to prevent the counter-flow. We conclude with some useful suggestions directed to the organizers of mass events.